I thought it would be interesting to put down this list of ways conservation is done today. Generally speaking the list is in order from oldest to newest methods.
- Protected areas – national parks and reserves
- Legislation and multi-national treaties
- Ecological restoration
- Targeted habitat management
- Removal of invasive species
- Captive breeding and reintroduction to the wild
- Trans-boundary conservation – protected areas across multiple countries
- Payments for environmentally sensitive farming
- Habitat creation
- Sustainable consumptive use (hunting tourism)
- Sustainable non-consumptive use (photo-tourism)
- Direct payments for biodiversity
- Direct payments for ecosystem services
Hopefully in the next couple of years the list will expand to include more integrated management across industries and the landscapes they affect (e.g. mining, fishing). What else have I left off or do you expect will be added to the list before 2020?